Sedimentology

Sedimentological Analysis

This service includes facies analysis, diagenetic studies and sequence stratigraphy based on core description and thin section petrography (macro- and microscopic core description). Sedimentological studies can be performed on cores (conventional and sidewall cores), cuttings, and outcrop samples. Data collected by our experienced geologists use to construction of facies model and reservoir description.

For facies definition and interpretation of depositional environment, samples are described in terms of lithology, structure, texture, fossil content and pore types. In addition, diagenetic events and features such as dolomitization, dissolution, cementation and stylolitization are recorded in detail. Special studies can be assisted with XRD, CL, SEM, fluid inclusions and geochemical analysis.

Then, all collected geological data are logged in various scales along with other information (poroperm and well log data). In order to prepare sequence stratigraphic framework, vertical facies changes together with well log and paleontological data are used to subdivision of the studied succession into deepening- and shallowing-up trends in various scales. Finally, an integrated geological report is prepared as per our client’s needs, based on interpretation of collected information.

Main Activities

  • Macroscopic core description
  • Sampling and thin section preparation
  • Thin section petrography
  • Core (white and ultraviolet light) and thin section photography
  • Core logging (with the ordered scale)
  • Other services (XRD, CL, SEM, fluid inclusions, geochemical analysis, sieve analysis)
  • Preparation of integrated geological reports

Geochemistry

Geochemical analysis

Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems. Isotope geochemistry is an aspect of geology based upon study of the natural variations in the relative abundances of isotopes of various elements. Variations in isotopic abundance are measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and can reveal information about the ages and origins of rock, air or water bodies, or processes of mixing between them. Stable isotope geochemistry is largely concerned with isotopic variations arising from mass-dependent isotope fractionation as the result of vital effect, the original water geochemistry or Reilly effect.

MAPSA, as one of the leader in geochemical analysis of sedimentary rocks, offers the various geochemical analyses with best quality and reasonable time including:

    • Carbon and Oxygen isotopic analysis
    • Sr isotope analysis
    • Uranium geochemistry
    • Elemental analysis
        • ICP-MS
        • EDS analysis (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy)
        • EMA (Elemental Map Analysis)
    • Organic geochemistry

The experience of MAPSA in geochemistry

The MAPSA Company has accomplished four geochemical projects so now. They include geochemical analysis of wells G4 and G5 (Golshan Field) and SPD16-08 and SPD13D-08 well (South Pars Field). The analyses include stable isotope (carbon and oxygen), strontium isotope and elemental measurement as well as EDS and EMA tests. The concentration of uranium and thorium were also used for further interpretations. The well G4 has also TOC determination and interpretation. A comprehensive report delivered to the client for the projects.

The MAPSA Company has accomplished four geochemical projects so now. They include geochemical analysis of wells G4 and G5 (Golshan Field) and SPD16-08 and SPD13D-08 well (South Pars Field). The analyses include stable isotope (carbon and oxygen), strontium isotope and elemental measurement as well as EDS and EMA tests. The concentration of uranium and thorium were also used for further interpretations. The well G4 has also TOC determination and interpretation. A comprehensive report delivered to the client for the projects.

Picture: New published book on chemistratigraphy (Elsevier) by participation of MAPSA experts and projects.

Paleontology

Biostratigraphy

The science of paleontology is largely academic in its scope, but here we mixed it with petroleum industry. Generally, paleontology is applied extensively and indispensable in solving the structural problems associated with the discovery of petroleum.

Mapsa Company provides a full suite of integrated biostratigraphic services including micropalaeontology (foraminifera, algae, none foraminifera, ostracods, radiolaria and etc.), Ichnology, and age determination of the sequences based upon the index fossils to the oil & gas industry.

The four main steps in obtaining the micropalaeontological data are as follows:

(I) Core study

(II) Processing of rock samples (preparing thin sections)

(III) Examination and identification of the microfossils encountered (foraminifera, none foraminifer, algae, radiolaria, bivalves, ostracoda, …)

(IV) Classification and interpretation of the obtained results

Method and Services

Method of the micropalaeontological studies is based upon the following items.

  • Application of the exact taxonomic principles
  • Resulted data are delivered in Mapsa formats.
  • Zonations schemes and microfossils determination is based on a combination of published, global and local schemes, Wynd 1965, Gollesstaneh, 1974, Laursen, 2009, Postuma 1971, Loeblich and Tappan 1988.
  • Palaeoenvironmental interpretations using a number of statistical methods and integration of micropalaeontology (establishing a detail paleoecological analysis and preparing the range charts to get a better understanding about the microfacies and their depositional setting. Integration of the micro-paleontological and sedimentological data is used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental models for the formations).
  • Calibration the relative ages and absolute age for the cored intervals where possible.
  • Data correlations and interpretations and integration with corporate databases.
  • Hard copy and digital report and paleolog formats supplied as standard.

Rock Mechanics

PETROLEUM GEOMECHANICS

[dropcap]P[/dropcap]etroleum Geomechanics is an explicit description of the state of stress, pore pressure, and mechanical properties of the subsurface materials including reservoir rocks and its overburden. The Geomechanical studies, especially constructing Geomechanical Earth Model (GEM), provides integrated and efficient conditions for assessing potential drilling risks, production optimization and reservoir characterization. MAPSA is a Pioneer Company in Petroleum Geomechanics in Iran and provide following services:

  • Geomechanical laboratory tests at reservoir condition
  • Safe and optimum wellbore trajectory design
  • Reservoir compaction and surface subsidence modeling
  • 3D seismic driven geomechanical modeling
  • Candidate well and zone selection studies for Hydraulic fracturing treatment
  • Reservoir stimulation treatment design including Hydraulic or Acid fracturing design
  • Coupled geomechanical modeling and Proposing the best scenarios of injection – production

Geomechanics1-2

Geomechanics2-2

Some of MAPSA current and finished project are as follows:

ClientWell #TitleStatus
1POGC – PGFKSPD 13Conventional and advanced geomechanical tests including the results interpretationFinished
2ICOFCCK 10Geomechanical sample selection based on the GMUsFinished
3ICOFCCK 12Geomechanical sample selection based on the GMUsFinished
4POGCSPD 18Conventional and advanced geomechanical tests including the results interpretationFinished
5POGCSPD 21Conventional and advanced geomechanical tests including the results interpretationOngoing

Geomechanics3-2Toggle Content goes here

Reservoir Characterization and Rock Typing

Reservoir Characterization and Rock-Typing

In this stage, the results of all previous studies (including facies analysis, diagenesis, etc.) are integrates with petrophysical (i.e. wireline logs) and Porosity-Permeability measurements in RCAL analyses. To discretize the targeted reservoir into units of similar reservoir characteristics (i.e. reservoir rock types: RRT), several methods were used, depending on the available data. Our reservoir characterization and rock-typing scheme incorporate following steps.

  1. Determination of petrographic rock-types
  2. Reservoir rock classification on PoroPerm plot
  3. Lucia petrophysical classes
  4. Winland R-35 classes
  5. Hydraulic flow units (HFU) using Flow Zone Indicator
  6. Stratigraphic reservoir zonation using the Lorenz method (SMLP)
  7. Electrofacies determination using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
  8. Correlation of various reservoir rock-types
  9. Combination of reservoir rock-types with geological phenomena (e.g., depositional facies, diagenetic rock classes)
  10. Data insertion and correlation in sequence stratigraphic framework to construct geological-based reservoir model
  11. SCAL sample selection based on the static rock-types
  12. Using the SCAL-derived dynamic data (e.g., MICP, relative permeability, and wettability), if available, for reservoir rock typing.

Reservoir characterization and rock-typing

Fractures Studies

Fracture Study

We offer fracture studies in various scales form thin sections to regional fracture study. Our fracture study services are includes:

  1. Core Analysis
    • Quantitative Fracture Analysis
    • Multi Scale Analysis (Macroscopic, Microscopic, Field Scale)
    • Stress Analysisf1
    • Conventional Core orientation (based on Image logs)
    • Fracture relationships
    • Statistical Analysis
    • Fracture Modeling
    • Comparing the fracture study result with sedimentological and geomechanical data

f2

  1. Image Log Analysis
    • Stress analysis
    • Natural fracture Analysis
    • Breakout and Induced fracture characterization
    • Correlation with cores and other petrophysical logs
  1. CT Scan Image Analysisf3_001
    • Whole core fracture availability
    • Quantitative fracture sampling (Natural or Induced?, filling, aperture, spacing,…)
    • Fracture relationships
    • Oriented sampling (if core is oriented)
    • CT scan fracture log
  1. Mud Lost & Well Tests
  2. Regional fracture study
    • Remote sensing
    • Outcrop fracture study
      1. Using the SCAL-derived dynamic data (e.g., MICP, relative permeability, and wettability), if available, for reservoir rock typing.

Reservoir characterization and rock-typing

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.