Paleontology

Paleontology is the study of what fossils tell us about the ecologies of the past, about evolution, and about our place, as humans, in the world. Paleontology incorporates knowledge from biology, geology, ecology, archaeology, and even computer science to understand the processes that have led to the origination and eventual destruction of the different types of organisms since life arose. In petroleum exploration the biggest aim through micropaleontology is to determine the accurate age in the drilling well or to determine the correct stratigraphic position with the help of microfossils. Paleontology in the oil industry can be divided into two parts: biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental analyses. These studies are done in two sections: macroscopic and microscopy. Paleoclimatology, biogeography, and thermal maturation are the other uses of fossils besides these.

According to these Mapsa Company provides a full suite of integrated paleontological and biostratigraphic services including:

  1. Micropalaeontology: Study of generally microscopic fossils, regardless of the group to which they belong. The most important microfossils belong to this group including Foraminifera (Agglutineous, Calcareous, Porcelaneus), Algae, Ostracods, Sponge Spicules, Radiolaria and etc.
  2. Macropalaeontology: Study of generally macroscopic fossils, regardless of the group to which they belong. The most important macrofossils belong to this group including Bryozoans, Bracipods, Gastropods, Bivalves and etc.
  3. Palynology: Study of pollen and spores, both living and fossil, produced by land plants and protists. The most important microfossils belong to this group including Spores, Pollens, Dinoflagellates, acritarchs and Chitinozoans.
  4. Calcareous nannofossils are often widespread, abundant and well preserved in marine sediments in the geological record and are therefore a very useful biostratigraphic tool.
  5. Ichnology: Study of fossil tracks, trails, burrows, borings, or other trace fossils as evidence of the occurrence or behavior of the organisms that produced them.
  6. Paleoecology: Paleoecology or the ecology of the past, uses geological and biological evidence from fossil deposits to investigate the past occurrence, distribution, and abundance of different ecological units on a variety of timescales.

Method and Services

  • Core study
  • Processing of rock samples (preparing thin sections)
  • Examination and identification of the micro-macrofossils (foraminifera, none foraminifer, algae, radiolaria, bivalves and ostracoda …)
  • Classification and interpretation of the obtained results
  • Method of the micropalaeontological studies is based upon the following items.
  • Application of the exact taxonomic principles
  • Resulted data are delivered in Mapsa formats.
  • Zonations schemes and microfossils determination is based on a combination of published, global and local schemes, Wynd (1965), Gollesstaneh (1974), Laursen (2009), Postuma (1971), Loeblich and Tappan (1988), Premoli Silva & Verga (2004).
  • Paleoenvironmental interpretations using a number of statistical methods and integration of micropaleontology (establishing a detail paleoecological analysis and preparing the range charts to get a better understanding about the microfacies and their depositional setting. Integration of the micro-paleontological and sedimentological data is used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental models for the formations).
  • Calibration the relative ages and absolute age for the cored intervals where possible.
  • Data correlations and interpretations and integration with corporate databases.
  • Hard copy, digital report and paleolog formats supplied as standard.
  • Reservoi